What is a hard drive? simply explained structure –

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Everyone has them in his PC hard drive. But what is a hard disk exactly? We tell you the structure and operation of the data carrier with examples easy to understand in our guide.

A hard drive is a fascinating piece of art and the popular media, when it comes to store large amounts of data. But what a hard drive anyway?

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What is a hard drive?

A hard disk, hard disk (HD) or Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is a small rectangular drive that can be connected to the computer. Their main task is to store data and files. The company IBM developed the first hard drive in 1956, which had 3.75 MB storage capacity and the size of a closet (173 x 152 x 74 cm). Today hard drives are available as a handy 3.5 or 2.5-inch drive, with 2 TB of storage capacity and above standard are.

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But how does a hard drive? To understand this, one has to look at its structure.

A hard disk looks a bit like an old record player in modern.A hard disk looks a bit like a modern turntable. Source: port29.net

Building a hard disk

Danger: Bolted a hard disk to Never. Inside is clean air, which is as good as fine particle-free. If it escapes, the disk stops working. See also hard drive crashes: Can we still save the data?

When unscrewing a (faulty) hard disk, you see one or more &Disks; # 8220&# 8221; (Platter), similar to an old turntable. It is a mechanical arm (actuator), are attached to the read and write heads. The actuator positions the heads so that they can write files and read. Here, the hard disk at speeds rotates about 5400-7200 revolutions per minute (90 to 120 revolutions per second). By the rotational speed of the actuator is floating a few microns above the platter surface, so it does not scratch them.

A hard drive is not that complicated and is (now) of relatively few components. Source: WikipediaA hard drive is not that complicated and is (now) of relatively few components. Source: Wikipedia

Example 1: You copy a large file from 1TB to your hard drive. If the hard drive is still new, the stylus begins at the beginning and writes the entire file sequentially to disk. Because a hard drive writes, if possible, always sequential, so the data pretty succession - as opposed to the SSD.

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Example 2: If the hard drive is used, data has already been added and removed at will. This is on the trail of hard drive &# 8220; gaps&# 8221; emerged. If you copied a very large file to the disk, it begins to write the file again, but only in the remaining gaps.

So the hard drive later knows where all &# 8220; pieces&# 8221; are a file, it needs a controller and a small internal memory. The required electrical engineering, to control the disk and its mechanics, sitting on the back: Here you will find a small board, similar to a motherboard where the cache and flash memory, as well as engine and Sata controllers are installed.

Info: ever &# 8220; dismembered&# 8221; the data on the hard drive, reads the slower and writes data. To rearrange the files again connected, you can defragment the hard drive.

How is data stored?

Structure of a read-write head of a hard disk. Source: itwissen.infoStructure of a read-write head of a hard disk. Source: itwissen.info

On the surface of the platters is an iron oxide layer. This is magnetized by small magnet to the write and read head of the hard drive and changed. In this way, information can be stored and read.

Note: And that's why even strong magnets from hard disks should be kept, since the data may otherwise be irretrievably lost.

In Windows itself you do not get it with a lot. We hear only the start-up and shut down the hard drive when you turn on the PC, using a soft whirring or Fiepens.

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